1921 Treaty 11
With the 1920 discovery of oil in the Mackenzie valley the federal government decided, after a delay of more than twenty years, to continue the treaty process in the north. Clear title to the land north of Great Slave Lake and down the Mackenzie valley was required in order to encourage further mineral exploration and to bring the Dene into the system of annual payments, medical care, schooling and relief to the elderly and destitute.
This was Treaty No. 11 and it was negotiated and signed during the summer of 1921 in Fort Providence (map), Fort Simpson, Fort Wrigley (now Wrigley), Fort Norman (now Tulita), Fort Good Hope, Arctic Red River (now Tsiigehtchic), Fort McPherson, and Fort Rae (now Rae-Edzo). Poor weather prevented the Treaty Commission from reaching Fort Liard until the summer of 1922.
Many of the same concerns, brought forward by the Dene during negotiation for Treaty No. 8, were also raised during negotiations for Treaty No. 11. Members of the Treaty Commission assured the Dene that they would not loose their right to hunt, fish or trap and that they would not be confined to reserves. It has long been felt that all the promises made during these treaty negotiations have not been kept. This dissatisfaction led, in part, to the present day land claim process.
Timeline Link: 1899 Treaty 8