The last quarter of the 20th century saw the peoples of the NWT attempting to address some of the injustices in their past. Land claims, often called ‘modern treaties’, became an important issue for all residents of the NWT as the shortcomings of Treaty 8 and 11 were replaced by more modern agreements between the Canadian government and the Inuvialiut (1980), the Sahtu Dene/Métis (1991) and the Dogrib (2001). Pope John Paul visited Fort Simpson in 1987 to support this process and to apologize for the detrimental effects of residential schools. The discovery of diamonds in 1991 also marked the beginning of a new mineral-based industry, but unlike all mining ventures in the past, affected Aboriginal groups negotiated socioeconomic agreements for the benefit of their people. In the last year of the century, the NWT also took on its new shape with the creation of Nunavut.